Category 4. Ties, Slurs, Beams, and Stems
Horizontal displacement of single-note beams across stems is used to indicate tremolandi, rapid repetitions of the indicated pitch. The use of tremolandi in scores can save extraordinary amounts of space. In the CCARH MuseData printing system, the final movement of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony shrank from 82 pages to 52 pages when tremolandi were implemented.
In Ex. #23 we see the cross-pieces displayed in several different situations on up-stems, down- stems, flagged stems, and beamed stems.
Ex. #23. Tremolandi signs of several kinds. These examples were produced by Leland Smith with SCORE. They appeared in the Directory of Computer Assisted Research in Musicology 3 (1987), 46.
Tremolandi also appear in Exs. #4 and #7.
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