Category 1. Duration and Alignment
In much recent music, particularly from the 1970s and 80s, it was intended that performers could exercise options within the performance such that no two performances of a work would necessarily contain the same content in the same sequence. Notational methods for expressing this variability were sought. Rhythmic values and sequence of pitches may vary with the performance.
In Ex. #5, time is measured in seconds in Bar 6, and variable content is expressed by sets of stemless black noteheads in the first violin (top) part.
In Ex. #6, rhythmic relationships constitute the main area of departure from conventional notation here.
Ex. #5. Music by David Gottlieb. This illustration was produced by Don Byrd using a beta-test copy of Nightingale. It appeared in Computing in Musicology 5 (1989), 100. 1991 J. K. Randall. Used by permission.
Ex. #6. From "3 for Piano" by J. K. Randall (1991). This illustration was produced by John Gibson with Nightingale and appeared in Computing in Musicology 9 (1994), 206.
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