Category 3. Text underlay
A related problem of text underlay is that translations may need to be typographically distinguished from the text intended for performance. This introduces the complication that the number of syllables per note may vary widely between the original text and its translation.
In Ex. #13 the words "giovenetto" and "flowers" illustrate this problem.
The assembly of Polish, French, and German texts in Ex. #4 has similar requirements.
Ex. #13. Five-voice madrigal with text translation. This illustration was produced by Leland Smith using SCORE and appeared in the Directory of Computer Assisted Research in Musicology 4 (1988), 87.
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